Sunday, October 4, 2015

Part 2: Looking for mtDNA diversity in West Eurasia

Previously I showed that within haplogroups JT, R0(xHV), HV(xH), U(xK), N1 diversity follows a West Asia vs Europe pattern. 75%+ of European/West Asian JT, R0(xHV), HV(xH), U(xK), and N1 falls under European/West Asian-specific clades which separated from each other in the Neolithic or earlier.

In today's post I'll show diversity within haplogroup H, shared haplotypes and deep subclades among West Eurasians in JT and UK, and how Pre-Historic European mtDNA is ancestral to modern European mtDNA. Later I'll edit this post and make it more attractive with some PCAs and graphs.

Sorry, I can't give all the details the data reveals. There isn't enough room. I let the data speak for itself. If you don't understand feel free to post any question. 

H diversity is also West Asia vs Europe

In my first post haplogroup H, the most popular haplogroup in West Eurasia, remained undiversified. So I searched on Google for studies that tested H-subclade SNPs. I found several studies with a lot of useful data on H-subclade frequencies in West Asia and Europe. I'm not assuming H diversity follows a West Asia vs Europe trend before I look at the data the data speaks for itself. Here are the results....

The most significant differences are that H1 is usually 15% or more in all of Europe and less than 5% in all of West Asia, H3 also has a noticeable high frequency in all of Europe except in the East Baltic, Sweden, and Karelia. H13 has a slightly high frequency in all of West Asia.

The majority of West Asian H is not  H1 through H7 while 75% of European H is. This means more research is needed on West Asian H to learn what sub-lineages the 50%+ other part of West Asian H falls under. In most H sub clades there aren't any significant trends. I'm not going to split hairs and pretend there are trends where there aren't. 

JT, UK haplotype sharing in West Eurasia

The majority of my data is only of HVR1 coverage. This means most of my data can only be put under old haplogroups and diversity is hard to find. The best one can do to find diversity when his data is only of HVR1 coverage is to look for HVR1-haplotype sharing. 

I went through every single  JT/UK HVR1 haplotype and searched for matches. If a haplotype existed in two more populations I found the frequencies of that haplotype in all  populations. 

Here are the results....

I'm excited about the results for JT and UK. There lots of sharing and regional trends. I broke up the JT and UK haplotypes according to what region it appears they're most popular. I added Pre-Historic matches to the spreadsheet. There are some interesting ancient/modern matches.

How Pre-Historic European mtDNA is ancestral to modern European mtDNA

Here you can see I updated my haplotype sheet with Pre-Historic data. 

I added the following Pre-Historic European meta-populations to the same analysis I did for modern West Eurasians in my first post. 

Pre-Historic European meta-populations:
Early Neolithic Central Europe, Early Neolithic SouthWest Europe, Middle Neolithic North Europe, Middle Neolithic SouthWest Europe, Neolithic Romania, Bronze age Steppe, and Bronze age Central Europe.

JT+N1: Pre-Historic      Modern.
U: Pre-Historic      Modern 

No Europeans have majority or very significant West Asian mtDNA. All have majority pre-3000 BC European mtDNA. Neolithic Anatolians(ancestors of Europe's first farmers), Mesolithic Europeans, and an unknown Near Eastern ancestor of Yamnaya are the primary mtDNA ancestors of Europeans.

Almost all Pre-Historic European mtDNA fall under European-specific haplogroups. But none have every European-specfic haplogroup. Looking at Pre Historic European mtDNA you can  see which pre-Historic Europeans are the source for each European-specific haplogroup. J1c, T2b, HV0, HV6-17, H1, H3 look like they decend from Europe's first farmers. U5b looks like it descends from Mesolithic Central and West Europeans. U5a, U4, T1a, J1b1a1 T2a1b look like they descend from the Bronze age Steppe.

1 comment:

  1. "Autosomal DNA tells us Neolithic Anatolians are direct ancestors of modern Europeans, however there's lots of mystery as to why stark differences exist in mtDNA between the two."

    I'd guess post Neolithic events, local turn-overs, the Black Death even !