Sunday, March 12, 2017

Siberia, Past and Present

"West Siberia"=Green, "South Siberia"=Red

A decent amount of mtDNA from Siberia which dates between 6000 BC to 0 AD has been sequenced in the last 15 years or so. In this post I'll give a brief description of the similarities and differences between ancient and modern Siberians.

Below is a list of the ancient and modern Siberians which I'll compare to each other.

South Siberia
6800-5800 BPKitoi culture, N=40
5800-4000 BPSerovo-Isakovo-Glazkovo culture, N=16
2800-2000 BPAltai Scythians, N=34
ModernAltaians, N=110
ModernBuryats, N=386
ModernTuvinians, N=195
ModernKhakassians, N=110

West Siberia
6000-5000 BP, Ust Tartas and Odinivo Cultures, N=27
3800-3000 BPKrotovo, Andronovo, Barba cultures, N=44
ModernMansi, N=51
Modern, Tatars, N=220

Here's a link of mHG frequencies for the above populations; Siberia, Past and Present.

All of the primary East Asian mHGs; A, B, C, D, F, are represented in ancient Siberia except for B.

mHGs which link ancient Siberia to modern Siberia; C4a1, C5b1, D4b1, G2a, F1b, A8, U5a1d2b

mHGs unique to ancient Siberia; A10(West Siberia).
mHGs unique to modern Siberia; B, N9a, M7

South Siberia, Past and Present

mHG A is x2-x3 less popular in all the modern South Siberians than all the ancient South Siberians. mHG F was exceedingly more frequent in the ancient South Siberian Kitoi culture at 38% than in any other modern or ancient Siberians. All of their F belonged to F1b, a form of F which is more or less Siberian/North Asian specific today. F1b is frequent in modern South Siberians(~5%) but not a single Atali Sycthian belonged to F or F1b.

mHG G2a makes a significant mark on all the mtDNA in all of the ancient and modern South Siberians. In contrast modern and ancient West Siberians barely have any G2a. But G2a can be found at decent frequencies in parts of Eastern Asia.

C4a1 was quite common in Atali Sycthians(12%) as it is in modern Tuvinians(12%) and Tofalar(34%). The only modern South Siberians who don't have at least 5% C4a1 are the Altaians(0%).

Several  mHGs exist in modern but not ancient South Siberia. Here they are...
B(primary B4), N9a, M7, M8, Y.

Both B and M7 are frequent in Eastern Asia(Japan, China, Burma, Tawian, etc).

West Siberia, Past and Present

Like in South Siberia, in West Siberia mHG A frequencies are considerable lower in moderns than in ancients. The Ust Tartas and Odinivo Cultures' high frequency of Z(19%) differentiates it from all other ancient and modern Siberians. 0% of modern West Siberians have Z.

mHG F, mostly F1b, is present in modern West Siberians but is absent in ancient ones. M7 and B are present in modern but not in ancient West Siberians. Besides that all the major mHGs in modern West Siberians are present in ancient ones.

West Eurasian mtDNA

West Eurasian mtDNA is present in every ancient and modern Siberian population. Ancient Siberians' WE mtDNA belonged exclusively to mHG U(U5a, U4, U2e) until the appearance of the Afanasievo(3000 BC)  and Andronovo cultures(1800 BC) from Eastern Europe. They brought with them large amounts of H, U5a, U4, T2, T1a, and smaller amounts of other West Eurasian mHGs.

Up until 1000 BC all of the WE mtDNA found in Siberia looks like it's from Eastern Europe. In 1000 BC mHGs never found in Europe but frequent in Western and SC Asia appear; U1a, U7, J1b, and others. Possibly after migrations from Eastern Europe(eg, Afanasievo) peoples from SC Asia or the Caucasus migrated into Siberia. 


  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

  2. H6a1b was found in the Okunev Culture of Siberia. H6 was found in Andronovo Culture. Today, H6 is found in Central Asia.