In March, Cylenski 2017 published one mito genome from Mesolithic Poland, one from LBK Poland, and three from Lengyel Poland. This study went unnoticed by DNA forums. I discovered it while searching for studies on modern mtDNA.
Here are the results from the paper....
Mesolithic, 5644-5374 cal BC, Jan1, U5b1b1
LBK culture, ----, Sam1, N1a1a1a
Lengyel culture, ----, Kz6, N1a1a1a3
Lengyel culture, ----, NHp1, H5*
Lengyel culture, 4255–4145 cal BC, R18_1, K2a-16398A
Lengyel culture, ----, KM1, U5b1b*
N1a1a1a3, K2a-16398A distinctive Neolithic Hungary/Germany Lineages
The N1a1a1a3 and K2a-16398A samples directly link Lengyel Poland to Neolithic Hungary and the LBK culture in general.
My database holds over 1,000 mtDNA samples from ancient Europe and about 12,000 mtDNA samples from modern Europe. And amazingly, besides a few exceptions, N1a1a1a3 and K2a-16398A reside exclusively in Neolithic Germany/Hungary.
None of my modern samples belong to K2a-16398A and only three belong to N1a1a1a3(Austria, Saudi Arabia, Yeman). Interestingly Austria also provides one of my only modern examples of N1a1a1a2, which could mean there's significant LBK-like mtDNA there. Most modern European N1a1a1 belongs to different subclades than what is found in Neolithic Germany/Hungary.
K2a-16398A and N1a1a1a3 were actually quite popular in Neolithic Germany/Hungary but apparently barely exist or don't exist at all in modern Europe.
U5b1b1, a clue to the origin of Eastern European U5b1b1a and U5b1b1[c]?
The only Mesolithic sample from this study belonged to U5b1b1. The meaning of this result goes beyond U5=European HG, the subclade this Polish HG belonged gives more in-depth insight than that.
In the past year dozens of Mesolithic mitogenomes have been sequenced but U5b1b1 has popped up in only one sample: Kretuonas4, an individual from the Narva culture who belonged to U5b1b1a.
U5b1 frequencies varied in Mesolithic Europe. It looks like it peaked in the Narva culture and in Germany/France.....
Narva Lithuania(17) U5b1=5
Mesolithic Latvia(19) U5b1=1
Comb Ceramic(12) U5b1=1
There are at least five U5b1 clades unique to Eastern Europe today; U5b1b1a, U5b1b1[c], U5b1b2, U5b1b, and U5b1e1[b],
10% of Finns belong to those subclades and basically all Finnish U5b falls under those U5b1 subclades. 41% of all my U5b samples from NorthEastern Europe belong to those U5b1 clades, that's 66 out of 160 samples.
So I'm thinking that Mesolithic Eastern Europe harbored U5b1 and especially U5b1b rich WHG populations which were later absorbed by farmers and herders.