Thursday, August 3, 2017


I've got a really strong feeling that the ancestry related to Mesolithic Europeans ('UHG') in Neolithic Anatolia derives from a population which mostly carried mHG K. These mHG K rich people (UHG) would have been the Near Eastern/Eastern European cousins of mHG U5 rich Mesolithic Europeans (WHG). I think they lived somewhere within this range that I guess you can call the 'East Mediterranean.'

Click  HERE  for a PDF version that is easier to read.***   

I've scratched off a big chunk of Europe from my list of possible homelands for K1 and K1a because the evidence proves a large chunk of K1 in Europe arrived from Anatolia in the Neolithic(See the map below). By and large K1a in (Western?) Europe falls under a handful of subclades dated to the early Neolithic: K1a4a1(9ky), K1a2a(8ky), K1a3a(10ky), K1a1b1(8ky). All of those clades have been found in Neolithic farmers from Spain and Britain but not in any Mesolithic European foragers.

Click  HERE  for a PDF version that is easier to read.*** 

Here are phylogenetic trees I made for K1. The trees include age estimates I get for K1 clades using Soares 2009's age estimator.

K1a tree. *Blank boxes are for rare K1a clades. I only show the name of popular K1a clades.

Click  HERE  for a PDF version that is easier to read.*** 

Other K1 tree.

Click  HERE  for a PDF version that is easier to read.*** 

In the Middle East, and possibly some parts of Europe, K1a has few links to K1a in (Western?) Europe. The only K1a clade common in both Europe and the Middle East is K1a4 (13ky). This means most European (ultimately Anatolian) and Middle Eastern K1a clades went their separate ways way back in the Early Mesolithic.

mHG U5b1 (19ky) shows this same pattern. Most U5b1 clades in Spain and Eastern Europe went their separate ways back in the Mesolithic/Late Paleolithic. Ancient mtDNA confirms U5b1 (19ky) clades had already expanded and gained popularity by the Mesolithic. The same may turn out to be true for K1a (17ky).

Mesolithic K1a didn't have the same geographic extent it has today. I think K1 and K1a were expanding, diversifying into new subclades, only within some populations of the 'East Mediterranean.' Anatolia Neolithic's mysterious 'UHG' ancestor was definitely one of those populations.

There's actually already documentation of K1 in the Mesolithic 'East Mediterranean'. The first two mtDNA samples from Mesolithic Greece belong to the same rare or extinct K1c* clade (See here) and 26% (11 out of 42) of mtDNA samples from Mesolithic Serbia/Romania belong to now rare or extinct forms of K1(K1*=6, K1c*=3, K1a*=1, K1f*=1).

Watch when someone sequences DNA from Mesolithic Anatolia. I won't be surprised at all if the results are a WHG-like population with 50% mHG K1 that fits well as Anatolia Neolithic's 'UHG' ancestor. 


  1. Very nice! MtDNA K1 folks will be happy to find this blog! MtDNA K is downstream or was U8, correct? Does MtDNA K2a have a similar migratory path & Mesolithic homeland? MtDNA K2a was found in GAC in Poland. According to the book: Corded Ware Culture and Globular Amphora Northeast of the Carpathians, GAC only last about 3 or 4 generations in some areas AND female idol small statues were found in some graves! Doesn't that seem very Cucuteni Trypillian like? I've read that GAC MtDNA was Funnel Beaker-like. My paternal Grandmother was K2a and her Grandmothers were from Venne, Germany. See: Venne in America by Udo Thorner for a list of families associated with the mass emigration of tenant and small Cottage Farmers from the village Venne in the region of Osnabruck.

    1. If I'm right about K1 being important somewhere in the Mesolithic East Med then K2a was definitely there right along with it. I didn't mention K2 in this post because I don't have enough K2 mitogenomes to say much about it.

    2. Regarding mtDNA K2a......just scanned Jean Manco's database. MtDNA K2a5 was found in Germany in the Corded Ware Culture. Seems both of my Grandmothers possessed CWC ancestry from Germany.

  2. If you have time, I'd welcome your opinion about K1a10/K1a10a.

    K1a10 seems to have died out. It appears as a branch at ,
    but really it deserves to be its own branch with G16047A.

    I keep an all-source map of K1a10/K1a10a at


    1. Nice Map! Thanks for sharing. My data is consistent with your map. Out of some 30,000 samples from Europe and Middle East all but one K1a10s is from Britain, Ireland, and Scandinavia. The other K1a10 is the same Bulgarian K1a10 on your map.

      I won't have an opinion on K1a10 till I find more examples. One possible origin for K1a10 Mesolithic Northwest European origin that somehow links Scandinavia and the British Isles.

      How did you find so many K1a10s?

  3. I just watch all the databases. No one has ever published anything about K1a10. It was my Google Map which localised it for me.

    I wonder if the first K1a10 woman lived in Doggerland. The flaw in that theory is that Doggerland didn't connect to Norway and Sweden, where there is some K1a10/K1a10a, but rather to the Low Countries and Denmark, where there isn't any.

    Also, if the two academic estimates of the age of K1a10a are correct (2,693 years and 2,900 years), that means an Iron Age expansion over Britain and Ireland. That doesn't make sense to me. But then, move a village with every generation and I guess you end up covering the islands.

    1. Ok I didn't know K1a10a's age estimate is so young.

  4. Hi Samuel,

    Just wondering whether you made a video about Cheddar man in the end...


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