Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Out of Iran

*At the bottom of this post I have listed all of the mHGs I think *may* have expanded out of somewhere near Iran. I used the mutation rate created by Soares 2009 to create age estimates.

I’m begging to notice an interesting trend in West Eurasian mtDNA that reinforces recent findings from ancient genomes. Quite a few mHGs look like they expanded out of Iran and surrounds mostly after 10,000 years ago. That time frame coincides with the out of Iran/Caucasus into Europe and SW Asia migrations documented by ancient genomes.

Initial reports about genomes from Neolithic Iran presented them as completely unrelated to other early Neolithic farmers, see here. But I think the differences between Iran Neolithic and other ancient farmers has been exaggerated. mtDNA data suggests all early Middle Eastern farmers shared lots of mtDNA.

Based on modern mtDNA and some ancient mtDNA, I’m fairly confident Iran Neolithic had loads of mHG J1, W, N1a, and HV just as Anatolia Neolithic did. Yes, farming was started in Iran and Anatolia by different populations but early farmers in both regions certainly had common Paleolithic hunter gatherer ancestors. They were probably more related than what is currently thought. The genetic landscape of the Paleolithic/Neolithic Middle East is definitely pretty complex and won’t be fully understood till we get more ancient genomes.

mHG, Most Common in, Age Estimate
J1d1a1, Levant and Arabia, 6ky
J1b1a1, Europe and South Asia(found in Catacomb and Corded Ware), 6ky
J1b1b1, entire Middle East and South Asia, 12ky
T1a1, Europe and South Asia(found in Yamnaya, Srubnaya, BA Europe), 7ky
T2i2, South Asia, n/a
T2d1a, South Asia, n/a
R2, most of Middle East and South Asia(found in Iran Neolithic), n/a

mHG, Most Common in, Age Estimate
H13a1a, Europe(Found in Yamnaya, BA Europe), 8ky
H13a2a, Iran and South Asia, 11ky
H15, West Eurasia, n/a
H6a1, Europe(Found in Yamnaya, BA Europe), 8ky
HV2, Iran and South Asia(found in Iran Neolithic), n/a
HV12b1, Iran, Caucasus, South Asia, n/a

mHG, Most Common in, Age Estimate
U1a1, Middle East and South Asia, 15ky
U7, Middle East and South Asia(found in Iran Chalcolithic), n/a
U2a, U2b, U2c; South Asia, n/a
I1, West Eurasia(found in BA Europe), n/a
I2, Europe, n/a
I3, Europe(found in Poltvaka and BA Europe), n/a
W6, West Eurasia(found in Yamnaya and BA Europe), 9ky
W3a1, South Asia and Europe(found in Yamnaya and Corded Ware), n/a
W4a, West Eurasia, n/a


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  3. I know this post is over 4 weeks old so I don't if anyone will comment on my query. I certainly think H6a1 was an out of Iran Zagros Hunter Gatherer or Caucasus Hunter Gatherer that migrated north through to Caucasus to the Pontic Caspian Steppe. MtDNA HV origins may be in Iraq so MtDNA H was probably born in Southwest Asia. MtDNA H6b is found in Saudi Arabia & Turkey. MtDNA H6a north of the Black & Caspian Seas. So the first H6 was probably born in Iran, Turkey or Iran. Anyway, my question is: when do you believe MtDNA H6a entered the PC Steppe. Sredni Stog period or earlier? Eupedia says H6 is a Mesolithic PC Steppe lineage. Thanks for any help with this question!

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  5. There has always been an anti-Iran biased when it comes to history and population genetics. Note that the study you linked lacked samples from Central or Eastern Turkey, where Iranian admixture would have certainly been higher. A later study with a sample just 100 miles East, revealed significantly more Iranian Neolithic component - and there is still plenty of geography, eastwards, unsampled. Still, I'm confident the more significant Iranian component in Europe, came sometime after the early Neolithic, when populations from the Iranian plateau migrated into the European Steppe, and banded into Europe, sometime between the late Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Note on this PCA (with ancient skeleton DNA), how Bronze age groups are intermediate between Iranians and Eastern Hunter gatherers (https://twitter.com/ztech1979/status/941689688234123266). The shift from a Western Hunter Gatherer/ Levantine (Anatolian) Vector, to a Eastern Hunter Gatherer/Iranian Neolithic Vector, between early and late Europeans (early neolithic to bronze age), makes it incontrovertible that modern Europe, ultimately, owe much of there genetic variation to Iranians.